Virtue ethics offers character forming theory that has been more successful with my students than the action guiding theories of computer ethic texts. The focus is on being rather than doing it presents a good heuristic or approach to the problem of moral agency. Virtue ethics offers a way of teaching self reflection through. It is the learning to care about the self, others, the community, living the good life, flourishing, and striving for moral excellence. The concept that we live a certain way and that our actions grow out of the vision of who are too important to jettison. Thus there seems to be a justifiable reason to hold onto the concepts of Aristotle. The cultivation of emotions as supports for duty and moral anthropology. . The moral issues surrounding the development of weaponry are thus a few of the very many possible examples of how an older moral question can take on a new light as technology changes. The difference can be identification is a search for a one too many match with whereas verification refers to a search one to one match. Van Kralingen made a distinction between determination of identity and verification of identity.
When we hear the word business computing the thing that comes in our mind is the expenses use in the business. But according to Duncan Langford it means that it is by no means straightforward. The business computing device system is now using computers not like before it is all manual once you have lost a data then there would be a problem with the business or the process will be repeated from the start not like computers you can save as many documents or things in the computer and also there is a backup so that once you have lost the data you have still a backup in the computer. The actual material processed by business systems all data entered and generated differs greatly.
This is particularly important as the nature of data held on company systems must affect the uses to which it may ethically be put. There would be four possible levels of business computing. Level one is including use of the computer- likely to be shared. At level one specially written software is generally unknown- instead there is reliance on packaged commercial software. At level two if more than one computer is owned, they may be used as individual machines or networked. Actual computer use will depend on the type of business but typically companies cover most aspects of business activity. The software is likely to be commercial packaged. At level three a business large enough to employ a designated computer specialist who will be given the task of setting up and maintaining company computer and lastly at level four there would be at least one team of computer specialist. Without specific training or direction the actual users of company computers may also act as unethically, either because they do not know or realize the consequences of their actions or because their use of company systems is not adequately policed.
The task of business computing or a computer is used in business to solve problems. This means that there would be less paper work and the system would be faster because it is already automated. Computer system considerations falls into two distinct equally important categories the first one is the nature of data – what is it, why was it collected, what uses are made of it, and so on. The second is less visible category is frequently overlooked.
Subsumption ethics is the process by which decisions become incorporated into the operation of information technology systems, and subsequentially forgotten. Subsumption in general is the process of building larger components from smaller ones. The greek word ethos, from which ethics can be translated as habit. Habit in general is a subsumption process. According to Aristotle subsumption and ethos is closely related. Example of this is small design decisions lead to small elements within a system. These small elements become subsumed into larger system components, and so on, until the full system operates.
Systems ultimately operate according to many such decisions. The decisions become codified into programming code and information content. Design decisions often have ethical components, whether or not the designer is explicitly aware of them. The impact of IT is determined by the operation of its subsumed objects, subsumed objects have a determinate moral value and the ethical impact of an IT system is the responsibility of the people who designed, developed and use it. Organizational Policy drivers IT development IT enables a function that was not possible before, a policy decisions is made to proceed with the practice, engineers and manager seek ways to implement the policy data is transmitted automatically to buyers at regular.
The process runs without user intervention. The policy becomes a subsumed object and it would take work to discontinue the practice. The SO gets subscribed into other practices, such as the general databases of the registry data purchasers. The process repeats. Information systems subsume design, policy, and implementation decisions in programming code and content. Subsumed objects have determinants moral value. Subsumed objects have a high invisibility factor. Subsumptive complexity increases over time.
The problem with PAPA’s formulation is the question of whether technology for use in weapons systems ought to be developed. This is an ethical issue of the information age. The information age puts new emphasis on some parts of many older moral questions. The moral issues surrounding the development of weaponry are thus a few of the very many possible examples of how an older moral question can take on a new light as technology changes. Weapons systems can be can be related to information systems because inaccurate data or processing may cause the wrong target to be hit. Privacy and accurancy of computer data and information are issues essentially unrelated to the environmental impacts of computing.
The cost of software that respects legal intellectual property rights, being a significant portion of the cost of computing tends to inhibit the increasing use of computers. Any moral code can be turned to by someone feeling pressures to find a relatively easy way out of a morally tricky situation. It is important for ethical debate to be structured and in some circumstances such debate will need the enunciation off particular principles or guidelines for application in particular circumstances.
The problem is that PAPA has been picked up on by others in a way that may in turn lead some people to believe consideration of privacy, accurancy, property, and access in sufficient moral consideration in the field of information technology. Codes should make it clear what their area of competence but in doing so it must also make it clear that moral issues outside its area of competence are still moral issues and ones that may be greater importance than any covered in the code.
Software engineering now has its own codes. The changes made in the version 3.0 and 5.2 are the eight principles were reordered to reflect the order in which software professionals should consider their ethical obligations. Version 3.0 was for the principle of the product and the version 5.2 was for the principle of the public. The code emphasizes the professional’s obligations to the public at large. In all these judgments concern for the health, safety, and welfare of the public is primary that is the public interest is central to this code. “The primary of well being and quality of life of the public in all decisions related to software engineering is emphasized throughout the code.
The code contains a clause against using prejudices or bias in many decision making, it includes specific language about the importance of ethical behavior during the maintenance phase of software development. It reflects the amount of time a computer professional spends modifying and improving existing software. The software engineering code of ethics purpose is to document the ethical and professional responsibilities and obligations of software engineers. Codes is intended to educate and inspire software engineers, it also informs the public about the responsibilities that are important to this profession. The code is unique unlike others its code is intended as the code for a profession and is distinctive in that it has been adopted by two international computing societies. Software engineers adhere the eight principles: public, client and employer, product, judgment, management, profession, colleagues, self.
Ethics is defined as the philosophical study of moral behavior, of moral decision making. The difference between morality and ethics is morality is the sense of conscience and right and wrong that we derive from upbringing while ethics is more structured and deliberative; Three major realms of ethics can be identified: Descriptive – focusing on existing situations or conditions; normative – focusing on what ought to be; and thirdly meta-ethics the logical analysis of moral language and the aim to make precise the meaning of moral terms and clarify the moral arguments that are at stake. Codes of ethics are understood as sets of best practices.
Professional ethics is professionals are experts in a field, which provides them an advantage over the lay person and that professional work has the potential to impact either positively or negatively the general at large. Johnson identified four channels through which professional codes of ethics should be judged: obligations to society, obligations to employer, obligations to clients and obligations to colleagues and organizations. As information professionals we have the ethical responsibility to uphold principles of social, personal and organizational responsibility. Ethical codes of conduct provide guidelines and frameworks but may more often than not fail to give us answers. The phase 1 is issue definition and evaluation examples of the questions are: Are you confident of your competence in the issue?, Who are the stakeholders or affected persons? How would you describe the situation to an outsider and an insider? and many more. The second phase is action/inaction evaluation and implementation.
Biometrics is the next big thing in information technology. That’s why when you combine biometric and information technology comes biometric technology. Biometric technology involves the collection with a sensoring device of digital representations of physical feature unique to an individual example of this are fingerprint, retina, veins of the hand and many more. Biometrics appears not so different from older and existing forms of establishing and verifying personal identity in the deliverance of all kinds of social services and securing economic exchanges.
The legal aspect of biometrics is a distinction between determination of identity and verification of identity while identity or real identification refers to a process involving investigation into a range of personal data. The difference can be identification is a search for a one too many match with whereas verification refers to a search one to one match. Van Kralingen made a distinction between determination of identity and verification of identity. Determination of identity means it is a process involving investigation into a range of personal data while verification is to involve merely the comparison of two data in order to determine whether they belong to the same person. The difference is identification refers to a search for a one to many match while verification is a search for a one to one match. Biometrics is not just about identity check but also involves the generation and storage of digital representations of unique physical features for the purpose of identifying that person within an information system.
GP or general practitioner plays an important role in the health care system. Most of the patients have only one GP, who acts like a gateway for the health care system and who is informed that the specialist and hospital colleagues about their treatments. Since the PC system needs many cases, we prefer electronic data. This preference became a requirement for several reason: the collection of data is much easier, the readability is a lot higher, and automatic selection becomes simpler. More important is the change of data during input. In order to transmit data from the GP to the central database of IPCI, they use the edifact standard for electronic messages. They developed the new carrier-message MEDEUR in order to be able to put as much coded and as much structured data in the EPR into the message. The randomized number is kept as a link to the patient in the GP system for two reasons. First since the GP sends the messages monthly it contains only the data added in that month and we must able to store the new data in the right patient record. Second, we want to allow the GP to go back to a patient based on the random number of our research database. Once the data is in the central database of IPCI, no one is allowed to have access, unless permission from the supervisory board is given. To keep the GP a sender of anonymized data also anonymous we have to solve two main problems. As soon as data are sent electronically the senders identification is automatically added to the message. To anonymize the sender, an automatic process of replacing this identification must be implemented.
The meaning of anonymity is conducting oneself without revealing one’s name. In my understanding about anonymity in information age is that when people sign up to social network sites they don’t give their real name but they use nickname or codenames so that people would not easily identify their identity. The power of information technology to extract or infer identity from non-identifying signs and information has been inventively applied by literary scholars to setting disputes and unraveling mysteries of authorship.
The value of anonymity lies not in the capacity to be unnamed, but in the possibility of acting or participating while remaining out of reach, remaining unreachable. In the computerized world the systems of information that we currently have in place, namelessness by itself is no longer sufficient for protecting what is at stake in anonymity. To further understand about anonymity in an information age requires an appreciation of what it takes to be unreachable or out of grasp in a world where technologies of knowledge and information are increasingly efficacious at reaching, grasping, and identifying. Two main problems of anonymous data also anonymized: the first is as soon as data is sent electronically, the senders identification is automatically added to the message. To anonymize the sender, an automatic process of replacing this identification must be implemented. The second is to decrypt an encrypted message, one must know the decryption key of the sender. However when the sender is anonymized, it is impossible to select the right key. An automatic process of key-handling and decryption must also be implemented.
There are confusions between security and privacy. Privacy requires security because without the ability to control access and distribution of information, privacy cannot be protected. But security is not privacy. Anonymity requires security and guarantees privacy but is neither. Security is often confused with privacy because security is concerned with confidentiality. Security has three goals: integrity, authentication, and confidentiality. Integrity means that information is not altered, what is received is exactly what is sent; information is not altered during storage. Information has integrity during transmission if the recipient can be certain that the information was not altered in transit. Authentication is establishing user identity or other attributes of interest.
Authentication enables access control. With access control individual files or data files can have different levels of access. Browsing information depends on the policies, practices, and physical configuration of the user’s internet service. Information availability depends upon the type and version of the customer’s browser. Browser software can send information on available helper applications to servers. Helper applications offer probabilistic information about the consumer’s machine and even interests. The American right to privacy has two sets of rights: right of autonomy and rights of seclusion. The right of seclusion can be seen in the original definition of the right to privacy by Warren and Brandeis as “the right to be let alone”.
The right to let alone has been defined into four kinds of privacy rights: intrusion upon seclusion, appropriation of name and likeness, false light and public disclosure of private facts. Intrusion upon seclusion is a violation of rights to seclusion. Appropriation of name and likeness is the use of person’s name, reputation, or image without his or her consent. False light is the publication of information that is misleading and thus shows an individual in a false light. Public disclosure of private facts is information deemed as newsworthy can be printed even if it is a violation of privacy.